The E-Meter Papers

E-meter Case, July 30, 1971

     UNITED STATES of America, Libelant, v. An ARTICLE OR DEVICE
          "HUBBARD ELECTROMETER" or "Hubbard E-Meter," etc.,
           Founding Church of Scientology et al., Claimants
                           No. D.C. 1-63

            333 F. Supp. 357; 1971 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 12206

                          July 30, 1971

CORE TERMS: religious, church, auditing, scientific, dianetic,
illness, secular, religion, cure, claimant, intelligence, First
Amendment, non-religious, labeling, psycho-somatic, disease,
misbranding, seized, distributed, processing, counseling,
condemned, radiation, exact, misrepresentation, adherents,
pamphlet, purport, harmless, bona fide

JUDGES: [**1]

Gesell, District Judge.



GESELL, District Judge.

This is an action by the United States seeking nationwide
condemnation of a gadget known as an E-meter and related
writings, by libel of information under the Food, Drug & Cosmetic
Act, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. The E-meter is claimed to be a device
within the meaning of the [*359] Act. Misbranding and lack of
adequate directions for use are alleged. Claimants are the
Founding Church of Scientology and various individuals.

This suit was originally tried to a jury before another Judge of
this Court and the conviction there obtained was reversed on
appeal after a long trial because of certain First Amendment
problems suggested by the instructions and evidentiary rulings.
Founding Church of Scientology v. United States, 133 U.S. App.
D.C. 229, 409 F.2d 1146 (1969). The present trial was conducted
to the Court without a jury after a series of pretrials which
narrowed the issues. The record consists of the transcript and
exhibits taken at the prior trial with some additions and
deletions, plus the testimony of one additional witness who
testified further on religious aspects of [**2] the case. Many of
the background facts are set forth in the opinion of the Court of
Appeals and since they were in the main not contested at the
second trial they need not all be repeated here.

The E-meter is essentially a simple galvanometer using two tin
cans as electrodes. It is crude, battery-powered, and designed to
measure electrical skin resistance. It is completely harmless and
ineffective in itself. A person using the meter for treatment
holds the tin cans in his hands during an interview with the
operator who is known as an auditor and who purports to read
indicators from the galvanometer needle as it notes reactions to
questions. Scientology is a so-called exact science which
promotes auditing. When practiced by trained or untrained
persons, Scientology auditing is claimed to improve the health,
intelligence, ability, behavior, skill and appearance of the
individual treated.

L. Ron Hubbard, writing in a science fiction magazine in the
1940's, first advanced the extravagant false claims that various
physical and mental illnesses could be cured by auditing. He
played a major part in developing Scientology. Thereafter,
commencing in the early 1950's numerous Scientology [**3] books
and pamphlets were written explaining how various illnesses can
be and had been cured through auditing. These materials were
widely distributed. Hubbard, who wrote much of the material, is a
facile, prolific author and his quackery flourished throughout
the United States and in various parts of the world. He was
supported by other pamphleteers and adherents who also promoted
the practice of Scientology and touted its alleged benefits.

Hubbard and his fellow Scientologists developed the notion of
using an E-meter to aid auditing. Substantial fees were charged
for the meter and for auditing sessions using the meter. They
repeatedly and explicitly represented that such auditing
effectuated cures of many physical and mental illnesses. An
individual processed with the aid of the E-meter was said to
reach the intended goal of "clear" and was led to believe there
was reliable scientific proof that once cleared many, indeed most
illnesses would automatically be cured. Auditing was guaranteed
to be successful. All this was and is false -- in short, a fraud.
Contrary to representations made, there is absolutely no
scientific or medical basis in fact for the claimed cures
attributed [**4] to E-meter auditing.

Unfortunately the Government did not move to stop the practice of
Scientology and a related "science" known as Dianetics when these
activities first appeared and were gaining public acceptance. Had
it done so, this tedious litigation would not have been
necessary. The Government did not sue to condemn the E-meter
until the early 1960's, by which time a religious cult known as
the Founding Church of Scientology had appeared. This religion,
formally organized in 1955, existed side-by-side with the secular
practice of Scientology. Its adherents embrace many of Hubbard's
teachings and widely disseminate his writings. The Church
purports to believe that many illnesses may be cured through E
meter auditing by its trained ministers through an appeal to the
spirit or soul of a man. As a matter of formal doctrine, the
Church professes to have [*360] abandoned any contention that
there is a scientific basis for claiming cures resulting from E
meter use. The Church, however, continued widely to circulate
Scientology literature such as Government's exhibits 16 and 31,
which hold out false scientific and medical promises of certain
cure for many types of illnesses. [**5] n1

n1 The issues have been tried as of January, 1963, the date of
the libel. Thus the findings as to Scientology literature and
positions of the claimants do not necessarily reflect current

In 1962, when the Government seized the E-meters involved in the
present controversy, it took them from the premises of the
Church, confiscating some E-meters which were actually then being
used primarily by ministers of the Church to audit adherents or
to train auditors for subsequent church activity. Thus the
Government put itself in the delicate position of moving against
not only secular uses of the E-meter but other uses purporting to
be religious, and the Court accordingly confronts the necessity
of reconciling the requirements of the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act
prohibiting misbranding and the requirements of the First
Amendment protecting religious institutions and religious beliefs
from governmental interference under the First Amendment.

The Court of Appeals has ruled that the evidence at the prior
trial [**6] and reintroduced at this trial established prima
facie that the Founding Church of Scientology, the principal
claimant here, is a bona fide religion and that the auditing
practice of Scientology and accounts of it are religious
doctrine. No evidence to the contrary was offered by the
Government on the second trial. Accordingly, for purposes of this
particular case only, claimant must be deemed to have met its
burden of establishing First Amendment standing for whatever
significance the religious practice of Scientology may have on
the outcome of this particular litigation.

The Government considers the First Amendment issue wholly
irrelevant and extraneous. Claimant, on the other hand, relies
heavily on the religious claim. The positions of the parties are
so completely different that neither even deigns to recognize any
merit in the other. The briefs and findings proposed by each side
pass like two ships at night with not even a port or starboard
light showing. Yet the truth is not as absolute as either party
contends. Religious aspects of this controversy, once tactically
conceded, cannot be ignored. On the other hand, it is a gross
exaggeration to insist that the energetic, [**7] persistent
solicitation of E-meter-audited cures for a fee has all occurred
in a spiritual setting without use of secular appeals and false
scientific promises made in a wholly non-religious context.

Turning to the precise issues presented, it must first be
determined whether the E-meter is a device within the meaning of
the Act (21 U.S.C. 321 (h)). It obviously meets the statutory
definition of an apparatus or contrivance intended for use in the
diagnosis, cure, mitigation or treatment of disease. Moreover, it
is held out as such in the constant promotion of E-meter
auditing, a process designed to effectuate cures of mental and
physical illnesses. Claimants contend that the E-meter is
harmless in itself, cures nothing by itself, and therefore cannot
be a device since those who use it appreciate its ineffectiveness
and cannot therefore have the requisite intent. This begs the
question. The device plays a key part in both the secular and
religious auditing process which is used and intended to be used
in the cure, mitigation or treatment of disease. It need not be
the only agent in an allegedly curative process to be a device
within the definition. The E-meter is a device [**8] within the
meaning of the Act.

Over 100 E-meters were seized. At the same time the Government
seized some 200 separate pieces of literature containing
approximately 20,000 pages, much of which it now contends
demonstrates misbranding of the device by misrepresentation
[*361] and lack of adequate directions for use under 21 U.S.C.
334 and 352.

The writings seized were located in a bookstore, or "Distribution
Center," separately incorporated but owned by the Church, with
offices in the basement of the Church premises. n2 The Center
advertised and sold for profit a long list of Scientology,
Dianetics and other writings concerned with auditing in book,
pamphlet, newsletter and other forms.

n2 Claimants urge that this search and seizure was overly broad
and contravenes the Fourth Amendment but this issue was resolved
against this position by the Court of Appeals and need not be
again considered.

A few of these writings are primarily religious in nature. Others
contain medical or scientific claims in a [**9] partially
religious context. Most of the material, however, explains
aspects of Scientology and Dianetics in purely matter-of-fact
medical and scientific terms without any apparent religious
reference. While the Court of Appeals concluded that literature
setting forth the theory of auditing, including the claims for
curative efficacy contained therein, is religious doctrine and
hence as a matter of law not labeling, it recognized this was so
only if the person charged with misrepresentation explicitly held
himself out as making religious as opposed to medical, scientific
or otherwise secular claims. The bulk of the material is replete
with false medical and scientific claims devoid of any religious
overlay or reference. Two books which the Church especially
recommended to interested participants, "Scientology: The
Fundamentals of Thought" (Government Ex. 31), and "The Problems
of Work" (Government Ex. 103), are typical examples of books
containing false scientific non-religious claims. Examples of
such claims found in these and a few other representative
documents used in various direct and indirect ways to promote E
meter auditing are listed in Appendix A.

Thus the literature [**10] has all the necessary elements of
labeling specified in 21 U.S.C. 321(m) since it "accompanied" the
device within the meaning of the Act. See Kordel v. United
States, 335 U.S. 345, 351, 69 S. Ct. 106, 93 L. Ed. 52 (1948).

Having in mind a jury trial, the Court of Appeals contemplated an
item-by-item analysis of the writings alleged to be labeling in
order to remove from jury inspection purely religious appeals,
reserving a presentation of the other literature for
determination under instructions differentiating the secular from
the religious. This exercise is, of course, unnecessary on a
trial to the Court. A single false scientific nonreligious label
claim is sufficient to support condemnation, and in fact there
are many. Moreover, differentiation of individual documents as a
practical matter is of little value when it comes to an overall
resolution of the controversy. Realistically, the writings cannot
only be viewed separately. They are available and distributed in
infinite combinations. Whole books are involved which often
ramble, contradict and are constructed to make diversified
appeals that are basically secular and directed to varying
temperaments, ages and attitudes [**11] of potential readers.
Much of the material is skillful propaganda designed to make
Scientology and E-meter auditing attractive in many varied, often
inconsistent wrappings.

The Food and Drug laws are designed to protect the public. The
literature disseminated by various Scientology groups is written
for popular lay consumption. The words and thrust of the writings
must accordingly be so considered. Claims as to the efficacy of
the E-meter must be read to mean what they clearly purport to say
to ordinary lay readers. The Court notes that the task of
determining whether a claim or representation is religious or non
religious, or whether a religious claim is genuine or merely
"tacked on" to basically pseudoscientific claims, is hardly less
troublesome [*362] than the task of determining whether a
religious claim is true or false. The Court has attempted to
resolve the difficulty thus presented by the Court of Appeals by
refusing to consider the truth or falsity of any claim which, in
the understanding of the average reader, could be construed as
resting on religious faith. All doubts on this issue have been
resolved in favor of the Claimants. But the overall effect of the
[**12] many separate writings and the writings as a whole cannot
be seriously questioned. Whether the documents are viewed singly
or as a whole, the proof showed that many false scientific claims
permeate the writings and that these are not even inferentially
held out as religious, either in their sponsorship or context.

It should be kept in mind at all times that the Church is but one
of several groups engaged in the promotion of Scientology; others
include the Hubbard Guidance Center, that offers non-religious
processing and auditing to the public for a fee; Hubbard
Association of Scientologists International (HASI), a world-wide
organization promoting Scientology among members of the
organization who receive a monthly magazine ("Ability") and other
benefits; and the Distribution Center, Inc., already mentioned.
The combined effort of all these activities is to persuade the
public to come forward for auditing with an E-meter for a fee,
and while some may be motivated or attracted by religious
considerations, others who audit or are audited are not. n3

n3 Ability, issue 14 (Ex. 9L, p. 14) states:

Scientology is going all out as a religion. The religious aspect
is highly functional, very true and is very -- much -- more
successful * * * The public expects to have ministers around.
That's us folks.

* * *

* * * If you don't like religion for heaven's sakes call yourself
a Dianeticist.


An individual was not required to be either a Church member or a
Scientologist to be audited at cost of $500 for 25 hours, with
state of "clear" guaranteed for $5,000. The E-meter was available
for sale to the public for a fee of $125. The benefits of
auditing were extravagantly advertised. At the time this action
was commenced, E-meters perhaps as many as one-third the total
supply -- were being used by members of the public without any
religious control or supervision. n4 The writings were
distributed to accompany the E-meter and intended to promote its
use by members of the public; they were used by laymen for
secular purposes; individually a great many contain false
unqualified scientific claims without even a religious overlay or
suggestion. Viewed as a whole the thrust of the writings is
secular, not religious. The writings are labeling within the
meaning of the Act. Thus, the E-meter is misbranded and its
secular use must be condemned along with secular use of the
offensive literature as labeling. The misbranding results not
only from misrepresentation by reason of 21 U.S.C. 352(a) but
because the labeling failed to bear adequate directions for use
required by 21 [**14] U.S.C. 352(f)(1). n5

n4 At the time of this action at least half the E-meters in use
in the United States were being used by non-ordained lay
personnel. Operators franchised by the Church who may or may not
subscribe to its doctrines, provide secular auditing, retaining
for themselves ninety percent of the fees collected and purport
to send only ten percent to the Church. Claimants were unable to
show that these franchised services were in any real sense
religious missionary work in the sense that auditing was done by
members of this group on a religious basis.

n5 Accompanying labeling must specify the conditions for which
the device is intended and sufficient information under which the
device can be used safely and effectively for the purposes for
which it is intended to be used. United States v. Shock, 379 F.2d
29 (8th Cir. 1967). Adequate directions are literally lacking
here. It is impossible to write adequate directions for use of
the E-meter by laymen. Cf. United States v. Ellis Research
Laboratories, 300 F.2d 550 (7th Cir. 1962). The Church of
Scientology of California v. Richardson, 437 F.2d 214 (9th Cir.


[*363] On the basis of these findings, the Government is entitled
to some relief. It is only when the Court confronts the question
of appropriate remedy that serious difficulties arise.

An initial issue presented is whether the normal Food and Drug
remedies, 21 U.S.C. 334, may under any circumstances be applied
to the device when used by some as an "artifact" of a church. A
law designed to afford protection to the public against genuine
evils may be used to regulate the activities of religion only if
the regulation involved is the narrowest possible remedy to
achieve the legitimate non-religious end, which in this case is
only to protect the public against misrepresentation since the E
meter is harmless in itself. See Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S.
398, 83 S. Ct. 1790, 10 L. Ed. 2d 965 (1963); Barnett v. Rodgers,
133 U.S.App. D.C. 296, 410 F.2d 995 (1969).

The Government argues that once a violation of the Act is
established, the devices seized may be treated the same as any
other misbranded device. Since the bona fides of the religion
remains unquestioned on this record, the Government's position is
an oversimplification. Here is a pseudo-science that has been
adopted [**16] and adapted for religious purposes. The literature
held to make false representations, while in itself nonreligious,
nevertheless comprises for some, part of the writings, teachings,
and history of a religion. Those who belong to the Church and
accept its beliefs assert that many illnesses may be alleviated
by religious counseling designed to free the spirit of
encumbrances. They find in the rationale and procedures of
Scientology satisfactory early explanations and techniques to
implement what is essentially faith healing by use of the E
meter. Thus they purport to read the purely secular writings of
Scientology with semantic interpretations fostered by their
evolving religious doctrine. Purely scientific statements are
given a theological slant by the initiated and the occasional
theological indications in the writings are given enthusiastic
exaggeration. What the layman reads as straight science fiction
becomes to the believer a bit of early imperfect scripture. The
result of all this is that what may appear to the layman as a
factual scientific representation (clearly false) is not
necessarily this at all when read by one who has embraced the
doctrine of the Church.

Accordingly, [**17] the Government's protestations that it is not
interfering with religious practice when it seeks to condemn the
E-meter and related literature must be qualified. The Church is a
religious institution protected by the First Amendment. The E
meter is used by its ministers as part of the ritual and practice
of the Church. Serious interference indeed results if the Church
is entirely prohibited from using the E-meter by condemnation or
if the Court orders the Food and Drug Administration to oversee a
general rewriting of all the writings the Church purveys. Where
there is a belief in a scientific fraud there is nonetheless an
interference with the religion that entertains that belief if its
writings are censored or suppressed. Similarly, if a church uses
a machine harmless in itself to aid its ministers in
communicating with adherents, the destruction of that machine
intrudes on religion. The dilemma cannot be resolved by
attempting to isolate purely false scientific claims from claims
that have sufficient religious content to be outside the Food and
Drug laws. There is a religious substance to everything when seen
with the eyes of the believer.

For these reasons, the Church may [**18] not be wholly prevented
from practicing its faith or from seeking new adherents. A decree
of condemnation which ordered destruction of the device, with its
necessary res judicata effect as to all E-meters in the country,
would achieve this effect. On the other hand, a condemnation
decree which allowed the FDA to reform the writings as is done in
the usual commercial drug misbranding case would give a
Government agency excessive [*364] power to interfere with the
exercise of religion, fostering that Government "entanglement"
with religion which has been recently condemned by the Supreme
Court. See, e.g., Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602, 91 S. Ct.
2105, 29 L. Ed. 2d 745 (1971). Neither of these possible remedies
is acceptable to the Court.

Had the Government proceeded in equity to enjoin specific non
religious practices or representations which it believed to
violate the Act, the Court could have curtailed the purely
commercial use of the E-meter while leaving the Church free to
practice its belief under limited circumstances. An action in
rem, however, acts only upon the device, and the Court cannot
fashion a remedy in libel which distinguishes with particularity
[**19] between religious and non-religious uses. An equity
proceeding is clearly the most satisfactory remedy in this and
any similar future cases, and may in some instances be the only
remedy which the Government may seek consistent with the First

Dismissal of this libel after eight years of legal proceedings is
not justified on the grounds that the Government has not used the
most appropriate remedy. A decree of condemnation will therefore
be entered, but the Church and others who base their use upon
religious belief will be allowed to continue auditing practices
upon specified conditions which allow the Food and Drug
Administration as little discretion as possible to interfere in
future activities of the religion. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 334 (d),
upon the findings and conclusions contained in this Memorandum
Opinion, relief in the following form shall be set out in an
implementing order:

All E-meters are condemned together with all writings seized. The
Government shall have its costs.

The device and writings condemned shall be returned to the
owners, upon execution of an appropriate bond, to be destroyed or
brought into compliance with the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act.
[**20] An E-meter shall be deemed to comply with the Act if and
only if it is used, sold or distributed upon specified

The device may be used or sold or distributed only for use in
bona fide religious counseling. No user, purchaser or distributee
(other than the Founding Church of Scientology or an ordained
practicing minister of the Church) shall be considered engaged in
bona fide religious counseling unless and until such user,
purchaser or distributee has filed an affidavit with the
Secretary of the Food and Drug Administration stating the basis
on which a claim of bona fide religious counseling is made,
together with an undertaking to comply with all conditions of the
judgment so long as the E-meter is used.

The device should bear a prominent, clearly visible notice
warning that any person using it for auditing or counseling of
any kind is forbidden by law to represent that there is any
medical or scientific basis for believing or asserting that the
device is useful in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any
disease. It should be noted in the warning that the device has
been condemned by a United States District Court for
misrepresentation and misbranding under [**21] the Food and Drug
laws, that use is permitted only as part of religious activity,
and that the E-meter is not medically or scientifically capable
of improving the health or bodily functions of anyone.

Each user, purchaser, and distributee of the E-meter shall sign a
written statement that he has read such warning and understands
its contents and such statements shall be preserved.

Any and all literature which refers to the E-meter or to
auditing, including advertisements, distributed directly or
indirectly by the seller or distributor of the E-meter or by
anyone utilizing or promoting the use of the E-meter, should bear
a prominent notice printed in or permanently affixed to each item
or such literature, stating that the device known as a Hubbard
Electrometer, or E-meter, used in auditing, has been condemned by
[*365] a United States District Court on the grounds that the
literature of Dianetics and Scientology contains false and
misleading claims of a medical or scientific nature and that the
E-meter has no proven usefulness in the diagnosis, treatment or
prevention of any disease, nor is it medically or scientifically
capable of improving any bodily function. Where the notice [**22]
is printed in or affixed to literature, it should appear either
on the outside front cover or on the title page in letters no
smaller than 11-point type.

The E-meter should not be sold to any person or used in any
counseling of any person except pursuant to a written contract,
signed by the purchaser or counselee, which includes, among other
things, a prominent notification as specified immediately above.

The effect of this judgment will be to eliminate the E-meter as
far as further secular use by Scientologists or others is
concerned. E-meter auditing will be permitted only in a religious
setting subject to placing explicit warning disclaimers on the
meter itself and on all labeling. The Government has requested an
opportunity to show that complete forfeiture and destruction of
the E-meter is required, but the Court has concluded that however
desirable this may be in the public interest, the Court is
without power to so order in view of the protections afforded
claimant and others similarly situated under the First Amendment.

The foregoing shall constitute the Court's findings of fact and
conclusions of law. The parties are directed to submit an
appropriate form of order providing [**23] the relief indicated
on or before September 1, 1971.


Representative Documents Found to be Non-Religious, and Samples
of False or Misleading Claims Found Therein

1. Eight-page pamphlet, entitled "What is Scientology?"

(Government Exhibit No. 16)

"Scientology is today the only successfully validated
psychotherapy in the world. Tens of thousands of completely
documented cases exist in the files of the Hubbard Association of
Scientologists International.

"The first science to put the cost of psycho-therapy within the
range of any person's pocketbook. A complete Freudian analysis
costs $8000 to $15,000. Better results can be achieved in
Scientology for $25 and, on a group basis for a few dollars."

"The first science to make whole classes of backward children
averagely bright using only drills the teacher can do a few
minutes each day.

"The first science to determine the basic cause of disease.

"The first science to contain exact technology to routinely
alleviate physical illnesses with complete predictable success.

"The first science of mind to prove conclusively that physical
illness can stem from mental disturbance, a fact which Freud held
only as a theory, [**24] and only seldom demonstrated.

2. Twenty-four page pamphlet, entitled "Ability Issue 71: Being
Clear and How to Get There," by L. Ron Hubbard

(Government Exhibit No. 9BA)

"Scientologically, the optimum individual is called the clear.
One will hear much of that word, both as a noun and a verb, so it
is well to spend time here at the outset setting forth exactly
what can be called a clear, the goal of Scientology processing.

"A clear can be tested for any and all psychoses, neuroses,
compulsions and repressions (all aberrations) and can be examined
for any autogenic (self-generated) diseases referred to as
psychosomatic ills. These tests confirm the clear to be entirely
without such ills or aberrations. Additional tests of his
intelligence indicate it to be high above the current norm.
Observation of [*366] his activity demonstrates that he pursues
existence with vigor and satisfaction.

"Further, these results can be obtained on a comparative basis. A
neurotic individual, possessed also of psychosomatic ills, can be
tested for those aberrations and illnesses demonstrating that
they exist. He can then be given Scientology processing to the
end of clearing [**25] these neuroses and ills. Finally, he can
be examined, with the above results. This, in passing, is an
experiment which has been performed many times with invariable
results. It is a matter of laboratory test that all individuals
who have organically complete nervous systems respond in this
fashion to Scientology clearing."

(3) Hard back book, 452 pages, entitled "Dianetics: The Modern
Science of Mental Health," by L. Ron Hubbard.

"Simple though it is, dianetics does and is these things:

1. It is an organized science of thought built on definite
axioms: statements of natural laws on the order of those of the
physical sciences.

2. It contains a therapeutic technique with which can be treated
all inorganic mental ills and all organic psycho-somatic ills,
with assurance of complete cure in unselected cases.

3. It produces a condition of ability and rationality for Man
well in advance of the current norm, enhancing rather than
destroying his vigor and personality.

4. Dianetics gives a complete insight into the full
potentialities of the mind, discovering them to be well in excess
of past supposition.

5. The basic nature of man is discovered in dianetics rather than
hazarded or [**26] postulated, since that basic nature can be
brought into action in any individual completely. And that basic
nature is discovered to be good.

6. The single source of mental derangement is discovered and
demonstrated, on a clinical or laboratory basis, by dianetics.

7. The extent, storage capacity and recallability of the human
memory is finally established by dianetics.

8. The full recording abilities of the mind are discovered by
dianetics with the conclusion that they are quite dissimilar to
former suppositions.

9. Dianetics brings forth the nongerm theory of disease,
complementing bio-chemistry and Pasteur's work on the germ theory
to embrace the field.

10. With dianetics ends the "necessity" of destroying the brain
by shock or surgery to effect "tractability" in mental patients
and "adjust" them.

11. A workable explanation of the physiological effects of drugs
and endocrine substances exists in dianetics and many problems
posed by endocrinology are answered."

"Chapter V


"Psycho-somatic illnesses are those which have a mental origin
but which are nevertheless organic. Despite the fact that there
existed no precise scientific proof of this before [**27]
dianetics, an opinion as to their existence has been strong since
the days of Greece, and in recent times various drug preparations
have been concocted and sold which were supposed to overcome
these sicknesses. Some success was experienced, sufficient to
warrant a great deal of work on the part of researchers. Peptic
ulcers, for instance, have yielded to persuasion and
environmental change. A recent drug called ACTH has had
astonishing but wildly unpredictable results. Allergies have been
found to yield more or less to things which depressed histamine
in the body.

"The problem of psycho-somatic illness is entirely embraced by
dianetics, and by dianetic technique such illness has been
eradicated entirely in every case."

"On the physical therapy level anything as violent as surgery or
exodor tistry in the psycho-somatic plane i utter barbarism in
the light of dianetics. "Toothache" is normally psycho-somatic.
[*367] Organic illnesses enough to fill several catalogues are
psycho-somatic. No recourse to surgery of any kind should be had
until it is certain that the ailment is not psycho-somatic or
that the illness will not diminish by itself if the potency of
the reactive [**28] mind is reduced. * *"

(4) Twelve-page pamphlet, entitled "Ability Issue 72"

(Government Exhibit No. 114)


[*368] (5) Sixty-four page booklet, entitled "Scientology: The
Fundamentals of Thought," by L. Ron Hubbard. Subtitle: "The Basic
Book of the Theory & Practice of Scientology for Beginners"

(Government Exhibit No. 31)

Scientology is that branch of psychology which treats of
(embraces) human ability. It is an extension of DIANETICS * * *
Scientology is actually a new but very basic psychology in the
most exact meaning of the word. It can and does change behaviour
and intelligence and it can and does assist people to study life.

Scientology, used by the trained and untrained person improves
the health, intelligence, ability, behaviour, skill and
appearance of people.

It is a precise and exact science, designed for an age of exact

Scientology is employed by an Auditor (one who listens and
commands) as a set of drills (exercises, processes) upon the
individual, and small or large groups. It is also employed as an
educational (teaching) subject. It has been found that persons
can be processed (drilled) in Scientology with [**29] Scientology
exercises and can be made well of many, many illnesses and can
become brighter, more alert and more competent. BUT if they are
only processed they have a tendency to be overwhelmed or startled
and although they may be brighter and more competent they are
still held down by an ignorance of life. Therefore it is far
better to teach AND process (audit, drill) a person than only to
process him. In other words the best use of Scientology is
through processing and education in Scientology. In this way
there is no imbalance. It is interesting that people only need to
study Scientology to have some small rise in their own
intelligence, behaviour and competence. The study itself is
therapeutic (good medicine) by actual testing.

Tens of thousands of case histories (reports on patients,
individual records) all sworn to (attested before public
officials) are in the possession of the organizations of
Scientology. No other subject on earth except physics and
chemistry has had such grueling testing (proofs, exact findings).
Scientology in the hands of an expert (Auditor) can cure some 70%
of Man's illnesses (sicknesses). Scientology is used by some of
the largest companies (business [**30] organizations) on Earth.
It is valid. It has been tested. It is the only thoroughly tested
system of improving human relations, intelligence and character
and is the only one which does.

(6) Seventy-one page booklet, entitled "The Problems of Work," by
L. Ron Hubbard.

(Government Exhibit No. 103)

"Scientology is the first American science of Man. It is the
technical knowhow of the American applied to himself. In contrast
to the metaphysical thinking of Europe that has formed the basis
of our concepts of ourselves, Scientology is a technology as
factual and as exact as the technologies that base the
development of the atom bomb . . . and it has a like source --
the first class in nuclear physics, taught at George Washington

"Scientology can and does change human behavior for the better.
It puts the individual under the control of himself -- where he
belongs. Scientology can and does increase human intelligence. By
the most exact tests known it has been proven that Scientology
can greatly increase intelligence in an individual. And
Scientology can do other things. It can reduce reaction time and
it can pull the years off one's appearance. But there [*369]
[**31] is no intention here to give a list of all it can do. It
is a science of life and it works. It adequately handles the
basic rules of life and it brings order into chaos.

"The mysteries of life are not today, with Scientology, very
mysterious. Mystery is not a needful ingredient. Only the very
aberrated man desires to have vast secrets held away from him.
Scientology has slashed through many of the complexities which
have been erected for men and has bared the core of these
problems. Scientology for the first time in man's history can
predictably raise intelligence, increase ability, bring about a
return of the ability to play a game, and permits man to escape
from the dwindling spiral of his own disabilities. Therefore work
itself can become a game, a pleasant and happy thing.:

(7) Hard cover book, 112 pages, entitled "All About Radiation, by
a Nuclear Physicist and a Medical Doctor"

(Government Exhibit No. 116)

We care very little about whether there is radiation in the
atmosphere because a person who is in excellent physical
condition does not particularly suffer mentally and thus
physically from the effects of radiation. When a person is at a
level where his general physical [**32] health is good, then this
worry is not capable of depressing him into ill-health. Radiation
is more of a mental than a physical problem and Scientology
handles that."

"The reaction to radiation in persons who have been given
Scientology processing is by actual tests much lower than those
who have not received it. We have conducted many experiments in
that direction. But even we would find it very difficult and even
antipathetic to get everybody together and give them the amount
of group processing needed as safeguard against radiation."

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